PSA HYbrid4

HYbrid4 is PSA Peugeot-Citroen's in-house developed TTR hybrid powertrain system, shared between the two manufacturers. It takes the form of a diesel engine powering the front wheels coupled with an electric motor powering the rear wheels to provide a 4WD hybrid with a short fully electric range. The system made its production debut on the Peugeot 3008 HYbrid4 in 2011, emitting 99 g of carbon dioxide per kilometer. The 3008 HYbrid4 returns combined fuel consumption of 3.8 litres/100 km, beating the smaller Toyota Prius. It also operates in four driver-selected modes: Auto, Sport, ZEV (pure-electric) and 4WD. This technology is not as widespread in Europe as it is in the United States and Canada.

The 1st generation HYbrid4 system was available 2011-2016.

The Hybrid4 powertrain combines a 120 kW/163 hp (DW10CTED4 PSA-Ford Motor Company joint developed) 2.0 litre HDi FAP EURO5 diesel engine with a 28 kW (37 hp) electric motor. The powertrain offers 4 working modes:

AUTO, in which the vehicle strives for the best fuel economy - throttle response is slow and the automated manual transmission shifts early, furthermore the vehicle switches to ZEV mode as often as possible;

SPORT mode offers a combined power output of 200 hp (150 kW) and 500 Nm at speeds up to 120 km/h, throttle response is very aggressive and the engine revs up to 4000 RPM before upshifts;

4WD mode keeps the HDi engine running constantly and charging the high voltage battery to offer constant AWD with 60:40 split at speeds up to 120 km/h;

ZEV mode is available if the high voltage battery is at least 1/3 full. In this mode the vehicle moves only via the rear electric motor and the performance is limited. ZEV mode is available at speeds of up to ~60 km/h with moderate acceleration, the range on a full charge is about ~2 km (~1.2 miles), the A/C compressor is automatically switched off in this mode. If the driver presses the accelerator beyond a certain point, the HDi engine restarts automatically as to offer better acceleration and the vehicle goes to AUTO mode.

Auto Start-Stop is part of the HYbrid4 system and is available in all modes except for 4WD when the engine is constantly running so that the reversible alternator can top up the battery and provide constant rear drive. The engine automatically shuts down whenever possible (cruising downhill at speeds of up to 85 km/h when the battery is not fully charged or cruising on a level surface at speeds of up to ~60 km/h), when coming to a stop the HDi engine shuts down at speeds below 30 km/h. The Auto Start-Stop function is possible with the use of the BOSCH SMG (Separate Motor-Generator) 138/80 (138 mm in diameter, 80 mm long) reversible starter-generator motor. Restarting can occur at any moment, if the HYbrid4 control unit determines that additional power is needed; or the battery needs to be topped up; or the A/C compressor needs to kick in. The engine also restarts when the battery is fully charged and the vehicle is going downhill, as to offer additional engine braking, no fuel is used in this mode, but ZERO EMISSION is not displayed, as the HDi engine is rotating.

The high voltage battery consist of 42 packs of 4 D-size SANYO batteries. The nominal voltage of the battery is 201.6 V, the nominal capacity is 1.1kWh and the peak power output is 31kW. The battery operates in the ~150-270 V range depending on the state of charge and acceleration/charging demand. To offer a longer battery pack life the HCU (hybrid control unit) never charges the batteries over 90%, nor discharges them under 30%. The battery pack has an independent air cooling system which can operate at different flow rates depending on the cooling requirements of the unit. The cooling system can be operative even if the vehicle is locked; operation noise and a warm draft can be felt at the left rear quarter panel of the car.
The HV battery typically lasts about 150.000-200.000km or 6-10 years before starting to lose capacity noticeably. The vehicle could be driven with a "bad" battery and does not lose the 4WD function, however the EV range is significantly reduced, resulting in poorer fuel economy.

The rear electric drive was co-developed by PSA Peugeot-Citroen, Bosch and GKN. It has an integrated clutch mechanism that disengages the rear drive at speeds over 120 km/h to provide less drag and better fuel efficiency at highway speeds. Reverse gear is not mechanical, instead the current going through the electric motor is reversed.

The Bosch SMG (“separate motor generator”) 180/120 (180 mm in diameter, 120 mm long) electric motor is used as the traction motor in the HYbrid4 system. The unit weighs only 32 kg and is a permanent magnet synchronous motor. In the HYbrid4 system it can deliver up to 27 kW and 200 Nm of power to help provide lower fuel consumption in AUTO and ZEV mode, better grip in 4WD mode and enhanced acceleration in SPORT mode.
The SMG 180/120 is also used in the Fiat 500e as main traction motor and in the front axle of the Porsche 918 Spyder.

HYbrid4 incorporates another Bosch permanent magnet synchronous motor, the SMG 138/80 (138 mm in diameter, 80 mm long) in the engine compartment to serve as a high-voltage starter/alternator for the start-stop system. It is also responsible for supplying power to the rear-wheel drive and charging the high voltage battery.

Some of the common problems with the HYbrid4 system include: