Shape memory materials (SMMs) show reversible shape change under certain external stimuli such as temperature, pressure, magnetic field, chemicals, light, and mechanical force (stress). The stimuli-responsive behavior of shape memory materials stems from shape memory effect (SME) which is defined as the ability to recover the original shape at the presence of the right stimulus after severe and plastic deformation. Shape memory alloys (SMAs) and shape memory polymers (SMPs) are the most well-known shape memory materials. However, shape memory hybrids (SMHs), shape memory ceramics (SMCs), and shape memory gels (SMGs) are also considered as promising SMMs. In addition to shape memory effect, pseudoelasticity for shape memory alloys and visco-elasticity for shape memory polymers are observed under specific conditions. Shape memory materials are used in.